The perchlorate discharge test with and without supplement of. A perchlorate discharge test is used to show how well the thyroid gland in your childs neck takes up a substance called iodine. Potassium perchlorate is prepared industrially by treating an aqueous solution of sodium perchlorate with potassium chloride. Pendred syndrome is a genetic disorder leading to congenital bilateral both sides sensorineural hearing loss and goitre with euthyroid or mild hypothyroidism decreased thyroid gland function. The repeated observation of thyroid effects such as alterations of hormones, increased thyroid weight, and alterations of thyroid histopathology including tumors from a large number of rat studies on perchlorate provide supporting evidence for the proposed modeofaction. Furthermore, the histological features of hashimotos thyroiditis were not found in the thyroid biopsy specimens obtained from 2 patients with a positive perchlorate discharge test. Evaluation of the perchlorate discharge test the journal. It is used rarely today to determine the ability to trap and organify iodine. Dod handbook for perchlorate sampling and testing developing conceptual site models csm a set of hypotheses about sources, pathways, and receptors based on data available at that time used in spp to evaluate whether. Perchlorate clo 4 occurs in the environment when perchlorate salts of ammonium, potassium, magnesium or sodium dissolve in water. In all groups of patients a significant discharge occurred after addition of kl in contrast to healthy persons. The perchlorate discharge test pdt was performed in nine of the infants with ectopic glands and 15 with eutopic glands. Perchlorate salts are solids that dissolve easily in water.
Thyroid scintigraphy and perchlorate discharge test. To accomplish this, it is essential to understand the chemical, biochemical, and. The perchlorate discharge test for examining thyroid function in rats. Perchlorate characterization work plan santa susana field laboratory, ventura county, california august 2003 2 section 2.
The perchlorate discharge test for examining thyroid function. Denver water has a surface water system that comes from snowmelt or precipitation. For the majority of the test, effluent perchlorate concentrations were below the quantitation limit of 5 gl, except when the laboratory fbr was operated at a low substrate load to determine the point of treatment failure. Standardization of the perchlorate discharge assay for. Subclinical hypothyroidism associated with the positive. Pdf thyroid scintigraphy and perchlorate discharge test in the. The ability to test for trace amounts of chlorate in perchlorate is particularly useful when it comes to making other perchlorates from sodium perchlorate especially ammonium perchlorate as you dont want any ammonium chlorate to be formed under any circumstances. Perchlorate discharge test is used in individuals with inborn errors of thyroid hormone synthesis.
Rats were pretreated with compounds that alter thyroid function by different mechanisms. Twentyminute perchlorate discharge test the journal of clinical. A comprehensive study of the electrostatic discharge. This list is called the contaminant candidate list or ccl. There are five perchlorate salts that are manufactured in large amounts.
A perchlorate is a chemical compound containing the perchlorate ion, clo. In thyrotoxic patients a more reliable assessment could be made at 90 min. Thyroid scintigraphy and perchlorate discharge test in the. Epa published the first ccl of 60 contaminants in march of 1998.
You may need a pdf reader to view some of the files on this page. If perchlorate regulations are imposed, they are not likely to have an impact on denver water because systems fed from groundwater or wells typically experience problems with perchlorate. The test was also performed upon 7 normal persons 24 hr after the administration of tsh. The resurgence of the clinical use of perchlorate as a means of controlling amiodaroneinduced thyroid dysfunction has suggested a need for a more careful examination of the actions of this antithyroid anion. Summary we have used a method based on a perchlorate discharge test to estimate the duration of antithyroid effect of two doses of methimazole mmi. Potassium or sodium perchlorate is a competitive inhibitor of iodide trapping, resulting in release of untrapped iodide from the thyroid. Harland a perchlorate discharge test was developed for rats to detect changes in the thy roidal iodide accumulation and organification mechanisms. It is one in a series of public health statements about hazardous substances and their health effects. In euthyroid patients the test was considered positive if the thyroid 1 i content at 120 min i. The thyroid gland is part of the endocrine system, which organises the release of hormones within the body. Perchlorate discharge test this information explains about the perchlorate discharge test, what is involved and what to expect when your child comes to great ormond street hospital gosh for the test. Tests for chlorate and perchlorate the ability to be able to tell what, and how much of what, is in your product is very useful.
Perchlorate discharge test can be used to diagnose thyroid peroxidase deficiency. Pdf thyroid scintigraphy and perchlorate discharge test. In pharmacological doses, perchlorate decreases the active transport of iodine into the thyroid. Pdf quantitative thyroid scanning using low doses of technetium99m sodium pertechnetate was performed on 147 infants 55 males and 92 females with. Evaluation of the perchlorate discharge test the journal of. This information is important because these substances may harm you. Four patients had a very small goiter detected only by careful palpation, and the remaining patients had no detectable goiters even in ct scan examination.
In some of the cases studied discharge was not complete until 60 min after the perchlorate. The target effluent perchlorate concentration was 350 gl. Great ormond street hospital for children nhs foundation trust. As such, its capable of migrating through the environment in the ground and surface water easily. If perchlorate is introduced into the environment, for example, through industrial discharge, explosive or fireworks detonation, it has the potential of contaminating ground and surface water. A perchlorate discharge test was developed for rats to detect changes in the thyroidal iodide accumulation and organification mechanisms. An important factor is the duration of the followup period after perchlorate is given. Thyroid scintigraphy and perchlorate discharge test in the diagnosis. Material safety data sheet page 1 of 4 r tm 10 fire hazard. A reasonable basis exists to suspect a perchlorate release has occurred as a result of dod activities.
When perchlorate was given at 4 or 6 hr instead of 63 min after the dose of 1 i, the discharge was much less evident. When organification is normal, perchlorate does not cause a significant change in the iodide. Employing a modified technique which reduces the variability affecting the calculation of thyroid 1i content, 144 perchlorate discharge tests were performed u. Sterile field sampling procedures for aqueous samples requiring analysis for perchlorate the following guidance is designed for use by field personnel collecting samples for in perchlorate drinking, surface or ground waters for analysis by epa method 314. If you would like to continue helping us improve mass. The iodine perchlorate discharge test is used in the diagnosis of impaired organification within the thyroid. Major sources of perchlorate are solid propellants for rockets, missiles and fireworks. Thyroid scintigraphy and perchlorate discharge test in the diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism article pdf available in european journal of nuclear medicine 229. The time of administration of perchlorate was important, as shown in 4 subjects with impaired organic binding.
The iodine perchlorate discharge test before and after one year of methimazole treatment of hyperthyroid graves disease. The occurrence and sources of perchlorate in massachusetts. The study shows that a correctly performed perchlorate discharge test will detect minimal inhibition of iodine binding. In early 2004, the department promulgated emergency regulations requiring public water supplies to test for perchlorate, as the first step in considering whether it was necessary and appropriate. The perchlorate discharge test for examining thyroid function in rats christopher k.
The conventional perchlorate discharge test consists of observing the discharge of unbound thyroidal iodide1 12. There is no specific treatment, other than supportive measures for the hearing loss and thyroid hormone supplementation in case of hypothyroidism. Technical fact sheet perchlorate cleanups at federal. Perchlorate background information and standards mass. Discussion inherited defects in hormone biosynthesis are rare causes of goitrous hypothyroidism and account for only about 1015% of cases of ch. Dod perchlorate handbook revision 1 change 1 august 2007 page 7 of 16 drinking water regulation. Congenital hypothyroidism le portail hal sorbonne universite. This public health statement is the summary chapter from the toxicological profile for perchlorates. What is the role of a perchlorate discharge test in the. They are mainly used for propellants, exploiting properties as powerful oxidizing agents and to control static electricity in food packaging. Sterile field sampling procedures for aqueous samples.
Thyroid scintigraphy and perchlorate discharge test in the diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism. Defects in intrathyroidal binding of iodine and the. Thanks, your survey has been submitted to the mass. Pdf thyroid scintigraphy and perchlorate discharge test in. Perchlorate is a highly mobile, watersoluble compound. A comprehensive study of the electrostatic discharge sensitivity. A robust method detecting perchlorate in water waterworld. Perchlorate discharge test great ormond street hospital. Risks of explosion of the product in presence of static discharge. The perchlorate discharge test for examining thyroid. Perchlorates are colorless salts that have no odor.
This single precipitation reaction exploits the low solubility of kclo 4, which is about 1100 as much as the solubility of naclo 4 209. Perchlorate and the thyroid gland semantic scholar. Epa decided not to regulate nine contaminants listed on the first ccl and carried. Perchlorate is an inorganic anion that is a potent competitive inhibitor of the sodiumiodide symporter nis found on the basolateral membrane of thyroid cells. We report three siblings with hypothyroidism due to thyroid. Each study was termi nated by a sodium perchlorate discharge test. The majority of perchlorates are commercially produced salts. Mar 27, 2014 the discharge test was found to have a satisfactory specificity with supplement of 2 mg kl, and was more sensitive to detect an organification defect than the standard perchlorate discharge test without kl.1158 648 421 754 1016 929 959 1442 561 1255 550 651 93 1479 760 147 1507 873 505 289 1484 575 1369 1475 1363 859 1234 200 292 1378 1097 210 102 474 632 151 332 64 258 616 36 1470 392 1237 1385 1456 962 90 227